geography notes for IAS / RAS / upsc , syllabus according geography notes in english class handwritten

Best geography notes for IAS / RAS / upsc and syllabus according other competitive exams like sub inspector , bank PO , SSC cgl , railway D group etc. here we will provide you geography notes in English language so that English medium students can get best content or notes for their UPSC , or ras exams and can score good in their exams.
Geography is very easy and conceptual subject if you read it in good way and good content , it create its own importance in each and every competition exam so you have to also read it in good manner so that it can help you good make good score in your RAS or upsc exams like IAS.
Our notes are very helpful in your both prelims and mains exams as well as in your interview , because our notes clear your all doubts for IAS / RAS / UPSC exams.
Apart from this if you have any doubts in your mind , you are free to ask your doubts , our expertise will help you as soon as possible .
AS per RAS / IAS study point of view , we have divided geography subject as rajasthan geography , Indian geography and world geography , here you will find all the notes of these notes .

If you like our notes , you can print all the notes provided by us and can study offline , or when you are out of station and want to study , you are again welcome to our online study portal , you can study about geography when you need and when you want to study.
Sometimes we classified our geography subject to study for RAS and IAS exam as given below .
Physical Geography : this type of geography subject tell us about physical structure etc of the world and Indian and rajasthan state , in this section of geography we study about earth’s structure , rocks , earthquake , ocean of the world and also how our earth created and when it was created in the old time . so that is why we said that Physical Geography is a branch of geography in which we study about the natural features like rocks , earth structure etc.
Human Geography : in this type of geography we study about the human activity and economical activity like in this branch of geography we study about Ramsar sites , when some place of biodiversity etc is in danger for destroying its biodiversity etc included into Ramsar sites , so this is the part of human geography , and also we study UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites in human geography , in section of geography we study about the world heritage sites which unesco include in their list , so this is also part of human geography etc.
Best NCERT geography notes in English : our notes are designed in this way that all the facts and most of thing of NCERT included in our these geography notes , so you do not need to worry about anything . only you have to read our notes again and again so that you can make good concepts for geography subject and you will learn facts and data easily in this way.
Best geography book for English medium students For IAS / RAS / UPSC exams  : here are some books suggested by our expertise to make command on the geography subject as given below , keep remember that you have to read our notes too , because notes are written in very easy language , so these notes will make your concept or basics strong , after it you can read these books –
Majid Husain’s geography book named “geography of india ”
Savindra Singh’s geography book named “physical geography”
Indian geography notes for RAS / IAS in English for mains and prelims exams , In this session we will discuss all about mains and pre exams notes as per RPSC and UPSC for their exams.
Geography is very interesting and conceptual subject , so defiantly you have interest in this subject so you want more knowledge in this subject so that you can score good in your respective exams like ias and ras .
Because RAS/IAS mains is more important because most of students can pass prelims exam easily and did not score good in their same mains exam , so today we will here will know , what you should study in your exams so that you can get good marks in your mains exams as well as you will good concept for your geography subject so you will answer in your interview with confidently.
Indian Geography notes for RAS / IAS / RPSC / UPSC for mains examination :
We categorized our geography subject to make easy study in our geography subject .
This classification of geography is given below –

  1. Physical geography : In this section of geography we study basic principles of geography and in this part of geography we include these topic , we will study these topics in details as given below –
  • Environmental geography : major principle of ecology , human ecological adaptations , influence of man on ecology and environment upsc , global ecological changes and imbalances , regional ecological changes and imbalances , what is ecosystem , management of ecosystem , conservation of ecosystem , environmental degradation , management of environmental degradation , conservation of environmental degradation , biodiversity and sustainable development , what is environmental policy , environmental hazards in india , remedial measures of environmental hazards , environmental education in india , environmental education legislation .
  • Climatology of world geography : temperature belts of the world , pressure belts in the world , heat budget of the planet earth , global atmospheric circulation system , atmospheric stability , atmospheric instability , what are planetary winds , what are local winds , indian monsoon and jet stream and relation between both monsoon and jet stream , air masses and frontogenesis , study about temperate cyclone in india , study about tropical cyclone in india , types of precipitation , distribution of precipitation . what is weather and climate , koppen climate classification of the world , thornthwaite climate classification , trewartha climate classification of india and world , what is hydrological cycle explain the phenomenon , global climate change , what is role of man in climate changes . study of applied climatology , learn about urban climate .
  • oceanography notes : explain the bottom topography of atlantic ocean in detail , bottom topography of pacific ocean , bottom topography of indian ocean , study about temperature of the ocean , study about salinity of the ocean , define in detail heat and salt budget of ocean , what is ocean deposits in geography , what is ocean waves , explain the ocean currents , what are ocean tides explain in details about ocean tides , marine resources geography notes , biotic resources and abiotic resources , geography minerals and energy resources notes , coral reef ecosystem in ocean , types , importance of coral reef ecosystem , coral bleaching in india and world , sea level changes causes and impact of sea level changes , what are the laws of the sea , marine pollution notes in detail.
  • geomorphology notes : landforms and their evolution notes , what factors controlling landform development geography upsc notes , what are exogenic and endogenic forces , origin earth crust and its composition , evolution of earth’s crust , what is geomagnetism , physical condition of earth’s interior notes for IAS/RAS , continental drift theory notes , isostasy theory of airy and pratt , plate tectonics theory upsc notes , what are recent views on mountain building upsc , vulcanicity and volcanoes , major and important volcanoes in the world and Indian , earthquake causes and prevention , what is tsunami , major tsunami in the world and tsunami of india , what is the concept of geomorphic cycle , landscape development geography notes , denudation chronology in geography , what is channel morphology notes , erosion surfaces geomorphology , slope development theories in geography , applied geomorphology notes upsc , what is geohydrology , economic geology of india , environment .
  • biogeography notes for ias/RAS : genesis of soil upsc notes , classification of soil in india and world , distribution of soil in world and India , soil profile notes , what is soil erosion explain in detail , what is degradation of soil , causes and impact of degradation of soil , conservation of soil . study of distribution of plants and animals around the world , what factors affect the distribution of plants and animals around the world , what is deforestation , impact of deforestation on environment and humans as well as animals , conservation measures of deforestation , cause , what is social forestry , what is agroforestry and its importance , wildlife and the need for conservation , major gene pool centres in india and world .

we have studied in detail about physical geography and now we are going to study about the human geography , in session we will learn all about human geography .
to make easy approach of study point of view , we have divided human geography in some parts or some sections , in these sections we will study those topics who lies in these sections.
Human geography :

  • perspective in human geography notes : what are differentiation rules , concept of regional synthesis in human geography , what is dichotomy and dualism in human geography upsc , environmentalism in geography , define quantitative revolution , locational analysis in human geography peter haggett , what is radical behavioral human and welfare approaches in human geography IAS/RAS notes , explain the languages religions and secularisation in human geography , major cultural regions of the world in human geography . human development index (keep update data)
  • models , different theories and major laws in human geography : system analysis in human geography , application of system analysis in human geography and its limitations , malthusian theory of population , marxian and demographic transition model , central place theory of christaller , central place theory of august losch , what is von thunen theory of agricultural location , explain weber’s model of industrial location in detail , what is rostow theory of stages of growth , heartland theory by halford mackinder , rimland theory of spykman , what are the laws of international boundaries and frontiers in geography .
  • economic geography notes : explain world economic development measurement , world economic development problems , explain world resources and their distribution in geography RAS/IAS , energy crisis in india and world , the limits of growth model , explain the world agriculture types , what is typology of agricultural regions in economic geography , agriculture inputs in india and world , productivity in agriculture in india and world level , sectors , what is food and nutrition problem , explain the food security in india , need , concept of security in world and india , famine causes of food security in india , effects and remedies of food insecurity , detail study of world industries , locational patterns of world industries , what are the problems of world industries , explain the pattern of world trade in detail.
  • Regional planning notes in human geography : explain the concept of a region in geography , different types of regions human geography , what are the methods of regionalization , growth pole theory in regional planning , what is growth centre in regional planning , regional imbalance in india and world , what are environmental issues in regional planning , explain the planning for sustainable development in geography upsc .
  • Population and settlement geography notes for UPSC/RAS/IAS : explain the growth of world population , explain and show the distribution of world geography , demographic attributes of world population , what are causes of migration in the world and india , consequences of migration on the country of origin , what is concept of optimum over and under population , different types of population theories , increasing world population problem and solution , explain in detail world population policies , what is social well being and quality of life , population as social capital in geography for upsc/ias and ras , types of rural settlement in india and world , what is pattern of rural settlement in india , what are environmental issues or problems in rural settlement geography upsc , what is urban morphology , hierarchy of urban settlements in india and world , explain in detail concept of primate city , what is the rank size rule , explain the functional classification of towns , sphere of urban influence qualitative and quantitative methods , rural urban fringe in india and in world case study , satellite towns in india , problems of urbanization in india , remedies of urbanization in india problems , what is sustainable development of cities in india explain in detail.

Here our world geography syllabus and notes are competed as per RAS/IAS exams point of view , we have tried to cover all the topics as per directed by UPSC and RPSC for their respective exams IAS and RAS for mains written exam.
Now we will discuss about the Indian geography for RAS and IAS prelims and mains exams , we have divided Indian geography in 10 parts so that we can study very easily all the topics of Indian geography in detail.
Geography of India notes for IAS / RAS for pre and main written exam :

  1. Physical setting of india : study the mention the space relationship of india with neighbouring countries , explain the drainage system of india in detail , on map etc. structure and relief of india , study in detail about watersheds of india , physiographic division of india on map , and study in detail of physiographic division of india , what is mechanism of indian monsoon , what is rainfall pattern in india , what is tropical cyclone in india , explain the western disturbances in india , study about the floods in india , causes , prevention , types of drought in india , detail study of climatic regions of india , what is natural vegetation and wildlife of india , how many soil types found in india , explain the distribution of soil in india .
  2. Agriculture in india : infrastructure in india , study of irrigation in detail , methods or techniques of irrigation , seeds , types , fertilizers used in Indian agriculture , types of fertilizers , need , benefits , need of power in agriculture , institutional factors affecting agriculture in india upsc , what is land holdings , explain the land tenure , land reforms in india , what are the cropping pattern in Indian agriculture , agriculture productivity in india , index , factors , need etc. what is agriculture intensity in india , crop combination techniques , regions , what is land capability , what is the agro and social forestry , explain the green revolution in india , social economic and ecological implementation of irrigation or green revolution in india , significance or benefits or need of dry farming in india , livestock resources and their management , what is white revolution , status etc. explain the aquaculture techniques , what is sericulture techniques in india , apiculture techniques and poultry in india , importance and methods of agricultural regionalization in india , agro climatic zone of india , study in detail of agro ecological regions of india .
  3. resources of india in geography : land water , surface water status of india and ground water level ,need , status in current , our target etc. energy resources of india , minerals resources of india in detail , what is biotic and marine resources in India , explain in detail , forest and wildlife resources of india , what is need of forest and wildlife resources and what is the conservation of wildlife and forest resources in india , explain the energy crisis in india .
  4. study about the industry of india : explain the evolution of the industries in india , locational factors for industries like cotton , jute , iron and steel industries in india , study in detail about some major industries like aluminium , paper industry , fertilizer , chemical and pharmaceutical industries in india , what are automobile industry , cottage and agro based industries in india , what is industrial houses in india , what is complexes including public sector undertakings in india , industrial regionalisation in india upsc , what is new industrial policies , multinationals in india , liberalization in india , study about the special economic zones in India , what is tourism including ecotourism .
  5. transport , trade and communication in india : important or major road , railway , waterways and airways in india , pipeline network in india , what is complementary roles in regional development of transport like road etc. explain the growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade , what is trade balance , what is trade policies of india , export processing zones in india , india’s developments in the field of communication and information technology , what is the impact on economy and Indian society of communication and information technology development . study about the Indian space programme.
  6. settlements in india : types of rural settlement in india or in rajasthan , what is patterns and morphology of rural settlement in india , explain the urban development , what is morphology of cities of india , study of functional classification of Indian cities , conurbation regions in india , study of metropolitan region of india , what is meant by urban sprawl , causes , effect , solution , slums and associated problems in india , what is town planning in rajasthan as well as in india , explain the problems of urbanization in india and its remedies , impact .
  7. cultural setting geography optional notes : study of historical perspective of indian society upsc , what is racial linguistic and ethnic diversities in india , explain the religious minorities in india , major tribes and tribal area in india , what are the major problems of tribes , cultural regions of india , study of growth distribution and density of population in india , what is demographic attributes , sex radio , literacy rate and age structure in india , dependency ratio workforce , longevity in india , inter and intra regional migration , international migration , what are the major problems due to migration , major problem of population and what is population policies in india , health indicators in india .
  8. political aspects in india : what is geographical basis of indian federalism , study about the state reorganisation , act , commission , emergence of new states in india , what are the regional consciousness and interstate issues in india , study about the international boundaries of india , issues related to international boundaries of india , what is cross border terrorism , what is india’s roles in world affairs , explain the geopolitics of south asia and indian ocean realm .
  9. regional development and planning in india : study about the experience of regional planning in india , explain the five year plans in india , what is integrated rural development programme (irdp) , study of panchayati raj and decentralised planning in india for UPSC , command area development & water management (cadwm) programme , planning for backward area in india , planning for backward area desert drought prone hill tribal area development in india , what is multi level planning in india , development of island territories in india .
  10. contemporary issues in indian geography : ecological issues in india , what are environmental hazards and disasters ,  landslides , earth quakes , tsunamis , floods and droughts etc. what is epidemics , types , recent epidemics , what are the issues related to environmental pollution , to heath etc. changes in pattern of land use in india upsc , what is principles of environmental impact assessment and their practical application in india , study of environmental management system , population explosion in india , what is food security , need , planning etc. what is environmental degradation , causes etc. deforestation in india , desertification and its control , what is soil erosion , causes , prevention etc. problems of agrarian and industrial unrest in india , regional disparities in economic development in india , what is the concept of sustainable growth and development in india , environmental awareness programme , need etc. linkage of rivers in india , globalisation and the indian economy notes .

note : candidates who is preparing for UPSC , IAS or RPSC , RAS exams will be required to the answers on compulsory Indian , world and rajasthan map question , pertinent to subjects covered by this geography paper .

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