Question : Critically review the Treaty of Versailles. (U.S. History , terms , why was unfair)
Answer : First of all we need to know some basics information about this treaty that this Treaty of Versailles was signed on the date 28 June 1919. This treaty was signed at Palace of Versailles which is situated in Paris which is capital of France. This treaty was signed between the countries Germany and the Allied Powers France, the United Kingdom (UK) , Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States (US). This treaty was very important treaty in history , this Treaty of Versailles ended the world war I that is why in history this is very important treaty in world history. here we will also discuss why was the treaty of versailles unfair. This treaty was Effective from 10 January 1920.
The Treaty of Versailles has been strongly criticized by contemporary and modern scholars. Among those who criticized Treaty of Versailles were scholars not only from the defeated nations but also from the Allied nations (United Kingdom (UK) , Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States (US)). In the words of Jawaharlal Nehru, “Allies were filled with hatred and vengeance. They wanted to suck not only the meat but the last drop of blood from the half-dead body of Germany. At the time of the armistice, Germany was assured that Wilson’s 14 points would be made base for the treaty, when in reality this was not done. It was a betrayal with Germany. The principle of self-determination was also not followed in the context of Germany. Many German territories were given to Poland. A corridor was built in the middle of Germany to give way to Poland to the sea. The city of Danzig was taken from them. The resources of the Saar Valley were given to France. All this was not acceptable to the German nation.
It was a one-sided and imposed treaty. Prof. Cars also consider the Treaty of Versailles to be an imposed
treaty. Germany was not called up for negotiations and later German objections to the draft were rejected with
contempt. Orders like disarmament were used only on the defeated. The troops of the Allies remained as they were.
The terms of the treaty were placed before the German representatives like an order and they were forced to sign.
It was also unfair to put all the responsibility of the war on Germany only because the Allies were also
more or less equally responsible for the war. The treaty created smaller states which gave rise to a new turbulent
political system. Thousands of miles of new international borders gave rise to economic and political difficulties
and disputes. The problem of minorities became complicated. The League of Nations could not solve these problems.
This gave a boost to the German ambition.
For all these reasons, the Germans objected to the Treaty of Versailles and other parties also strongly
criticized it. Because of all these points we can say that the treaty of versailles unfair and that’s why Germany considered this treaty as its national insult. The German nation began to burn in the fire of vengeance. Now the Germans had only one objective – to dig the roots of the Treaty of Versailles. As soon as Germany became able it rejected all the clauses of this treaty one by one. Lord Vice then said that, “The result of this treaty is to make the nation dissatisfied. This would prepare the background for wars and rebellions.” But this treaty also had some justification, One is that the one who takes the initiative to disturb the peace must be punished.
Lloyd George said that “nations that become invaders without reason should be taught this.” Secondly, if Germany
had won the war, it would probably have made a similar treaty because it had signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
with Russia that too was in no way less than the Treaty of Versailles.
Thus the Treaty of Versailles was unilateral, accusatory, humiliating , extremely harsh and treacherous, yet it was not unjustified. This gave rise to a point of view in history. that is why the treaty of versailles unfair.
The cover picture of The Treaty of Versailles of english version shown below –