geography of india syllabus , class handwritten english pdf download , indian geography notes for RAS / IAS / UPSC :-
Here we are going to learn about the geography of india as per RAS and IAS prelims and mains examination . Indian geography is very important subject not only for RAS / IAS pre exam point of view but also IAS / RAS mains examination point of view , that is why we have to make concepts strong because To write in effective manner in RAS mains paper . that is why we will learn the Indian geography in detail so that you will build your concepts so that you will able to write very easily and very effective in your mains exams and also you will get updated data so that you will not face any problem in your prelims exams also.
If we just talk about the geography and it is contains very large and vast syllabus in itself and in government competition exams , specially for IAS / RAS aspirant , it is not important if you do not know what to study but it is most important for RAS or IAS aspirant what to not study so that the aspirant can save their time and energy by reading waste material or less important study material.
Because the Indian geography subject is even in your ias optional subject or even in your RAS or IAS mains exam part , it is very important and conceptual subject so we have given here detailed study about the geography of india and we have elaborated every topic of the subject so that you can learn more thing in short time.
Let us suppose your IAS or RAS exam is any lock and you just want to unlock it , keep in your mind in this situation the geography subject will work like the key , by which you can unlock the RAS / IAS exam lock , because it has very high importance in RAS / IAS prelims and mains exams so you can not skip this subject or can not replace this subject by any other subject.
As we have told you that the geography subject is a conceptual subject so it is not just limited to geography subject , the concept and name of geography used in other subject like history etc. so if you have strong geography than you can learn easily locations in history etc. so we can say that other subject also dependent something on geography.
We have classified the Indian geography in this unit to develop easy approach for study or learn. Chapter wise notes given below in detail –
- Formation or structure of india : the Archean formation or precambrian formation , dharwar system of rocks or proterozoic formation , the cuddapah system of rocks or the Purana rock system of india , the vindhyan rock system , what is paleozoic group or explain the cambrian to carboniferous period structures , mesozoic era periods or gondwana rock system in india , cretaceous period or the formation of indian deccan trap plateau , tertiary period system or what is the cenozoic era (best known for ?) , quaternary structure period or pleistocene age in india or recent formations of india .
- physiography of india : origin of peninsular india , what is physiography of peninsular plateau india , detail study about the himalayan mountain range , origin or formation of great plains of india (how were great northern plains of india formed) , detail study of coastal plains of india , earthquake in india (what is earthquake , how it is formed , origin , reasons or causes , prevention etc.) , what is volcanicity in geography , status of volcanicity in india , reasons of volcano , major volcano in india , prevention of volcanoes.
- Natural vegetation and wildlife : factors which influencing vegetation , classification of natural vegetation , geographical distribution of forest area in india , forest products , indirect uses of forest , problems of Indian forestry , social forestry , forest conservation , wildlife conservation , preservation of wildlife , distribution of national parks , wildlife sanctuaries in india , biosphere reserves of india . distribution of biosphere reserves.
- Natural Hazards and disasters : introduction of hazards , types of hazards , disaster in india , vulnerability , natural hazards and disasters in India , earthquakes in india , Tsunami , droughts , floods problems in india , flood disaster management , flood control programs and policy , tropical cyclone , tropical cyclones in india , main mitigation strategies , cyclone warning , local severe stroms , landslides in india , avalanches in india .
- Soils in india : soil formation in Indian conditions , major soil groups of india , problems of Indian soils , soils erosion , how many types of soil erosion , human factors of soil erosion erosion , extent of soil erosion in india , soil conservation , achievement in soil conservation in india .
- Environment in india : environmental pollution india , air pollution in india , initiatives for control of air pollution , water pollution india , groundwater quality of india , soil or land pollution in india , noise pollution , noise pollution in india .
- General characteristics of population : what is size of Indian population , census of population of india , distribution and density of population in india , distribution of population of india , density of population , human development .
- Population composition in India : ethnic composition in india , caste groups of india , scheduled castes ,tribes population in india , language and dialects groups in india , religious composition in india , sex composition , literacy , work of india .
- Explain the drainage system of india : drainage system of india , th Himalayan rivers system , evolution of the Himalayan rivers in india , multiple rivers theory , the indus river system in india , the ganga river system of india , the brahmaputra river system , the peninsular drainage system of india , evolution of the peninsular drainage in india , the peninsular river systems , inland drainage system in india , river basins of india , river regimes , usability of rivers in india . seasonal rhythm , the cold weather season or winter season in india , the summer season of india , the rainy season , the cool season , annual rainfall , peculiarities and significance of Indian climate , Indian climatic regions , stamp’s classification of climatic regions , climatic regions of temperate or continental india , climatic regions of tropical india , koppen’s classification of climatic regions , classification of climatic regions according to thornthwalte , trewartha’s classification of climate regions , R.L singh’s classification of climate regions .
- Land utilization in india : what is land utilization , net sown are in india , area sown more than once of india , forest area , permanent pastures and other grazing lands in hindi , land not available for cultivation , land under miscellaneous trees crops and groves of India , what is fallow lands , culturable waste land .
- Green revolution in india :explain the intensive agriculture development programme (iadp program) , what are the components of the green revolution , what are the impacts of green revolution in india and world , what are the Demerits or problems of green revolution in india , ecological implications of green revolution (ecological impact of green revolution in india) , second green revolution .
- Agriculture in india : salient features of Indian agriculture , what are the basic problems of Indian agriculture , what are the solutions of indian agriculture problems , determinants of agriculture , production imports and consumption of fertilizers , cropping pattern in india , what is agricultural productivity of india , agricultural intensity in india (intensity of cropping) , explain the crop combination , land capability , what is dry farming , agricultural regionalisation in india , agro climatic regions in india .
- Major crops in India : food crops , rice , wheat , maize crops , millets , sorghum (jowar) crops , bull rush millet (bajra crops) , ragi , barley , pulses , gram , arhar or tur crops (red gram or pigeon pea) , cash crops in india , cotton , jute , sugarcane crops , tobacco , oilseeds , groundnut , til (sesamum crop) , rapeseed and mustard crops of india , linseed , castor seed , plantation crops , tea , coffee , rubber crops , spices crops of india , pepper , cardamom , horticulture , cashewnut crops , mango , apple , banana , orange , grape crops , peach , pear , apricot , strawberry , vegetables crops in india .
- Energy resources in india : what are the conventional energy sources in india , petroleum or mineral oil , oilfields in north east india , on shore oil fields of western india , western coast off shore oil fields , major petroleum refining in india , pipelines , imports , natural gas , electricity , hydro electricity energy resource , thermal electricity , nuclear energy , what are the non conventional energy sources in india , solar energy , wind energy resource .
- Mineral resources in India : what are minerals and mining , explain the mineral wealth of india , distribution of minerals , detail study about the mineral belts in india , how many types of minerals , metallic minerals , iron ore , manganese mineral , chromite , copper , nickel , lead and zinc minerals , tungsten , bauxite , pyrites , gold , alluvial gold , silver , non metallic minerals of india , mica , reserves , limestone , dolomite , asbestos , magnesite , kyanite , sillimanite , gypsum , diamonds , atomic minerals in india , timeline , salt , conservation of mineral resources.
- Migration patterns in india : what is migration , explain the types of migration , what is out migration , what is In – migration , consequences or causes of migration , migration streams .
- Regional development and planning : what is regional development , regional planning In india , planning for backward area of india , damodar valley corporation (DVC) , Durgapur barrage , national capital region of India .
- Settlements : what is settlement , classification of settlement in india , explain the rural settlement pattern , study about the urban settlement , trends of urbanization , what is metropolization or metropolitanization , what is morphology of Indian cities , functional classification of Indian cities , conurbations , what is town planning , town planning in india , what are the problems of urbanization in India .
- Irrigation in india : what is need for irrigation , geographical factors favoring irrigation , explain the types of irrigation techniques , study about the growth and utilization of irrigation in india , sources of irrigation , what is tank irrigation , wells and tubewells irrigation , explain the intensity of irrigation in india .
- Water resources : india’s water resources , what is surface water , interlinking the rivers of india , national water grid in india , ground water , hydrological situation , what is water scarcity , major water disputes and water conflicts of india , inter state river water dispute in india , international cooperation , conservation of water resources , study about the rain water , harvesting of rain water .
- Biotic and marine resources in india : what are biotic and marine resources of india , livestock products , fisheries , programme for development of fisheries , what is aquaculture in india .
- Multipurpose projects in india : bhakra nangal project , The damodar valley project , the hirakud dam project , the kosi project , the rihand valley project , the Chambal valley project , tunbhadra multi purpose project , the gandak project , the namada valley project , the nagarjuna sagar project , tehri dam project , the beas project of india .
- Manufacturing industries in india : historical perspective of Indian industries , factors influencing the location of industries in india , classification of industries , textile industries in india , cotton textile industry , jute textiles , woolen textiles , silk industry , metallurgical industries , engineering industries , major industrial machinery manufacturing machine tools , transport equipment industry , railway equipment automobile industry in india , ship building industry , air craft industry of india , bicycles , light mechanical engineering goods , electric machinery and equipment making industry , chemical and allied industries , heavy inorganic chemicals , heavy organic chemicals , fertilizers , cement industry in india , rubber goods industry , leather and leather goods , plastic industry of india , drugs and pharmaceuticals , dyestuffs , major soap and detergents industry of india , glass industry , ceramic industry , forest based industries in india , paper industry , match industry , lac industries , sports goods , food and allied industries , sugar industry , vegetable oil industry , industrial regions , industrial houses in india , industrial policy of india , multinational companies (MNC’s) of india , what is liberalization , special economic zone (SEZ) in india , industrial / economic corridors in india.
- Tourism : what is definition of tourism , places of tourist interest , problems and prospects.
- Foreign trade in india : trends in india’s foreign trade , composition of export trade of india , composition of import trade of india , direction of india’s foreign trade , salient features of foreign trade of india.
- Transport , communication and space in india : railways , rail traffic , metro rail in india , roadways of india , air transport , water transport , shipping , ports in india , ram setu or sethusamudram , competitive and complementary character of means of transportation in india , communication system in india , Indian space programme.
We can classified the IAS / RAS / UPSC syllabus in some short or in brief , we are summarizing the syllabus or notes giving below –
- The drainage system
- Drainage pattern
- River basins of india
- The multiple river theory
- River systems of the Himalayan drainage
- Main rivers of peninsular india
- Easterly rivers of the peninsular region
- River regions
- Shifting courses of the rivers
- Type of lakes
- Main lakes of india
- Water resources of india
- The inter state water dispute
- International agreements for surface water resources
- National water grid
- Ground water resources of india
- The national water policy
- Main waterfalls of india
- Indian monsoon
- Indian monsoons and the Tibet plateau
- Jet stream and Indian monsoons
- El-nino and the Indian monsoon
- Burst of monsoon
- Breaks in the monsoon
- Seasons in india
- Rainfall distribution
- Variability of rainfall
- Climatic regions of india
- Koppen’s classification of Indian climate
- Climate divisions by stamp and kendrew
- Trewartha’s classification of Indian climate
- Climate divisions of india by R.L. singh
Natural vegetation and national parks :
- Floristic regions of india
- Spatial distribution of forests in india
- Classification of forest
- Important species of trees and their utility
- Forest products and their utility
- Problems of Indian forestry
- The national forest policy
- Social forestry
- Existing position of forest ecosystem
- Forest conservation
- Western ghats : a world heritage site
- Characteristics of soil
- Classification of soils of india
- Problems of Indian soils
- Consequences of soil erosion
- Soil conservation
- natural resources
- mineral resources
- biotic resources
Energy resources :
- sources of conventional energy
- non conventional energy
- energy crisis
- energy conservation
- land utilization
- characteristics and problems of Indian agriculture
- determinants of agriculture
- land reforms
- infrastructure and agricultural inputs
- second green revolution
- white revolution
- blue revolution
- apiculture (Beekeeping) or golden revolution
- poudtry farming (silver revolution)
- dry farming
- national commission on farmers
- Indian agriculture – challenges and prospects
- New national agricultural policy
Spatial organization of agriculture :
- Cropping pattern
- Crop concentration
- Agricultural productivity
- Agricultural intensity
- Crop combinations
- Land capability
- Contract farming
- Agricultural regionalization
- Agro climatic regions of india
- Agro ecological regions of india
- Evolution of industries
- Industrial development during the five year plans
- Industrial policy
- Cotton textile industry
- Jute textile
- Woolen textiles
- Silk textile
- Iron and steel industry
- Aluminium industry
- Automobile industry
- Chemical industry
- Fertilizer industry
- Paper industry
- Pharmaceutical industry
- Cottage industries
- Industrials regions of india
- Industrial problems of india
- Special economic zone (SEZ)
- Public sector undertaking
- Eco tourism
- Industrial houses in india
- Industrial complexes
Transport , communication and trade :
- International trade
- Balance of trade and balance of payment
- Trade policy
- India space programme
Cultural setting :
- Origin of mankind
- Historical perspective of Indian society
- The caste system
- Racial and ethnic diversity of india
- Religious minorities
- Scheduled tribes
- Scheduled castes (16.20% of the total population)
- Cultural regions
- Demographic characteristics of Indian population
- Literacy rate
- Age composition
- Population problems
- Health indicators
- Human development index in india
- Explain the settlements
- Classification of settlements
- City region and planning
- Slums and associated problems
- Problems of urbanization
- Town planning in india
Regional development and planning :
- Planning in india
- Experience of regional planning
- Fiver year plans
- Regional dimensions of planning in india
- Integrated area development
- Integrated rural development programme (IRDP)
- Development of backward areas
- Command area development
- Watershed management
- Area development programs