इंडियन सिविलाइजेशन एंड कल्चर का क्वेश्चन आंसर indian civilization and culture class 12 summary in hindi ?
about author (महात्मा गाँधी)
महात्मा गांधी (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) भारतीय स्वतंत्रता सेनानी, आजादी के प्रख्यात नेता, और अहिंसा के प्रणेता थे। वह 2 अक्टूबर 1869 को पोरबंदर, गुजरात में जन्मे थे और 30 जनवरी 1948 को नई दिल्ली में उन्हें हत्या कर दी गई थी। उन्हें पांचों महाद्वीपों में “भारतीय राष्ट्रपिता” के रूप में पहचाना जाता है।
गांधी ने सत्याग्रह (अहिंसा और सत्य की शक्ति का उपयोग) को अपना मुख्य आंदोलन का सिद्धांत बनाया। उन्होंने आंदोलनों, आपातकालीन आहुति, अनशन, और विभिन्न अनुष्ठानिक और गैर-अनुष्ठानिक कार्यक्रमों के माध्यम से अंग्रेजों के खिलाफ लड़ाई लड़ी।
गांधी ने दांडी मार्च (Salt March) के माध्यम से विदेशी कर से आंदोलन की शुरुआत की, जिसमें वह नमक की उत्पादन को अंग्रेजों के प्रतिबंधों के खिलाफ किया। यह आंदोलन भारतीय स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन के महत्वपूर्ण पथप्रदर्शकों में से एक माना जाता है।
गांधी ने भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस (Indian National Congress) के नेता के रूप में भी महत्वपूर्ण योगदान दिया और वह अनेक देशभक्तों के साथ मिलकर भारतीय स्वतंत्रता की लड़ाई में अहम भूमिका निभाई।
गांधी के विचारों का एक महत्वपूर्ण हिस्सा था सबके लिए समान अवसर और अधिकार, धार्मिक सहिष्णुता, और शांति की प्रोत्साहन। उन्होंने स्वदेशी आन्दोलन को भी बढ़ावा दिया, जिसमें भारतीय उत्पादों का उपयोग करने की प्रेरणा दी गई।
महात्मा गांधी ने अपने जीवन के दौरान कई अवार्ड और सम्मान प्राप्त किए, जिनमें से सबसे महत्वपूर्ण है “भारत रत्न”। उनकी जयंती, 2 अक्टूबर, अंतर्राष्ट्रीय अहिंसा दिवस के रूप में मनाई जाती है। गांधी जीवनयात्रा के दौरान कई किताबें लिखीं, जिनमें से “हिंद स्वराज” और “सत्य के प्रश्न” मशहूर हैं।
महात्मा गांधी एक आदर्श पुरुष, विचारशील, और आध्यात्मिक नेता थे जिन्होंने अपने जीवन के माध्यम से लाखों लोगों को प्रेरित किया और एक पूरे देश को संगठित करने का कार्य किया। उनका योगदान स्वतंत्र और आधिकारिक रूप से मान्यता प्राप्त है और उन्हें विश्व भर में सदियों तक स्मरणीय रहेगा।
question : what did gandhiji do for the farmers in bihar ?
Mahatma Gandhi played a significant role in addressing the issues faced by farmers in Bihar, particularly during the Champaran Satyagraha in 1917. The Champaran Satyagraha was a movement initiated by Gandhi to support the farmers who were forced to cultivate indigo by British landlords.
During his visit to Champaran, Gandhi investigated the grievances of the farmers and witnessed the oppressive indigo plantation system. He organized meetings and rallies to raise awareness among the farmers and encouraged them to resist the unjust practices. Gandhi also advised the farmers on their rights and legal recourse.
Through peaceful protests and civil disobedience, Gandhi mobilized the farmers and initiated negotiations with the landlords and the British administration. He demanded fair treatment, adequate wages, and the right to cultivate the crops of their choice.
Gandhi’s efforts resulted in significant changes. The British authorities appointed a commission to inquire into the indigo plantation system, and as a result, the exploitative practices were curtailed. This marked a crucial victory for the farmers in Bihar and set a precedent for Gandhi’s future nonviolent struggles.
Gandhiji’s intervention in Bihar not only addressed the immediate concerns of the farmers but also highlighted the power of nonviolent resistance in bringing about social and economic justice. His efforts in Champaran laid the foundation for his subsequent campaigns and established him as a prominent leader in India’s freedom struggle.
question : civilization and culture meaning ?
Civilization and culture are interconnected concepts that encompass various aspects of human society. While civilization refers to the advanced development of human society in terms of social organization, technology, infrastructure, and governance, culture refers to the shared beliefs, values, customs, traditions, arts, and knowledge of a particular group of people.
Civilization is often characterized by the establishment of cities, complex systems of governance, technological advancements, division of labor, and the development of written language. It signifies the progress and sophistication of human society, including aspects such as architecture, engineering, agriculture, trade, and scientific achievements. Examples of ancient civilizations include the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Indus Valley, Greek, Roman, and Mayan civilizations.
On the other hand, culture encompasses the intangible elements of a society that shape its way of life. It includes language, literature, religion, rituals, social norms, cuisine, music, dance, art, and other forms of creative expression. Culture is passed down through generations and provides individuals with a sense of identity, belonging, and shared values. It influences how people interact, communicate, and perceive the world around them.
While civilization provides the framework for societal development and progress, culture is the foundation that shapes the identity and uniqueness of a society. Culture plays a vital role in shaping human behavior, social relationships, and individual and collective perspectives.
It’s important to note that civilizations can have distinct cultures, and cultures can exist within or across different civilizations. Each civilization may have its own unique cultural practices and contributions to human history and diversity.
Overall, civilization and culture are interrelated and mutually influenced. Civilization provides the infrastructure and organization, while culture contributes to the values, beliefs, and practices that define a particular society or group of people.
question : indian and European civilization ?
Indian civilization and European civilization are two distinct and rich cultural traditions that have evolved over thousands of years in their respective regions. While both civilizations have contributed significantly to human history, they have distinct characteristics, influences, and developments.
Indian civilization is one of the oldest and continuous civilizations in the world, with roots dating back to the Indus Valley Civilization (around 2500 BCE). It has witnessed the rise and fall of numerous empires and kingdoms, including the Maurya, Gupta, Mughal, and Vijayanagara empires. Indian civilization has been shaped by various cultural, religious, and philosophical influences.
Religion: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism originated in India and have had a profound impact on Indian culture. Hinduism, with its complex pantheon of gods and goddesses, rituals, and caste system, has been a significant influence. Buddhism and Jainism emphasized non-violence, ethical living, and spiritual enlightenment.
Language and Literature: India has a rich linguistic diversity with several languages and dialects spoken across the country. Sanskrit, one of the oldest recorded languages, has played a crucial role in the development of Indian literature, philosophy, and religious texts such as the Vedas, Upanishads, Mahabharata, and Ramayana.
Arts and Architecture: Indian art forms include sculpture, painting, music, dance, and theater. The architectural styles of ancient India are exemplified by structures like the Taj Mahal, temples, stupas, and rock-cut caves.
European civilization, particularly Western civilization, has its roots in ancient Greece and Rome. It underwent significant transformations with the rise and fall of empires, such as the Roman Empire, the Renaissance, the Age of Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution. European civilization has been shaped by various cultural, political, and intellectual influences.
Religion: Christianity has been a dominant religious influence in Europe, particularly after the spread of Roman Catholicism and later Protestantism. The impact of Christianity on European culture, art, literature, and governance has been profound.
Language and Literature: European civilization has given birth to numerous influential languages and literary works. Ancient Greek and Latin have played a significant role in the development of European literature and philosophy. Works by authors such as Shakespeare, Dante, Goethe, and Cervantes have left a lasting impact on world literature.
Arts and Architecture: European art has witnessed diverse styles and movements, including Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Romanticism, Impressionism, and Modernism. European architecture is renowned for its cathedrals, castles, palaces, and landmarks like the Colosseum, Parthenon, Notre-Dame, and Eiffel Tower.
Political and Economic Systems: European civilization has been associated with the development of democratic governance, constitutionalism, capitalism, and the modern nation-state system.
While there have been interactions and exchanges between Indian and European civilizations throughout history, they have distinct cultural, religious, and historical trajectories. Both civilizations have made significant contributions to humanity in various fields, including philosophy, science, art, literature, and governance. Understanding and appreciating the diversity and uniqueness of each civilization enhances our understanding of human history and cultural heritage.
हिंदी माध्यम नोट्स
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